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If Trump Wants to Do Better than Obamacare, He Better Pay Attention to This!

Donald Trump says he can improve upon the Affordable Care Act – promising to get everyone in the country “a much better healthcare plan at much lower cost.”

If that’s really what Trump wants to do, he should pay attention to one of the problems with Obamacare – the subsidies to purchase insurance might have been too stingy.

Let me explain. Before Obamacare, most people got insurance either with the help of their employers, or the government (if they qualified for Medicare or Medicaid). But some people had to buy insurance without such help, and the price of such coverage was usually – how do I say this nicely? – insanely expensive! Insurance companies charged extremely high prices for such policies, because they knew that many people shopping for such individual insurance were doing so because they were too sick to work, meaning their healthcare expenses would be higher than average.

Obamacare tried to make this kind of individual insurance more affordable. (They named it the Affordable Care Act for a reason!) The ACA accomplished this affordability, in part, by establishing insurance exchanges, which gave insurance companies a larger number of costumers to spread risk across, making it potentially easier for them to lower prices. In addition, Obamacare provided subsidies to people who otherwise could not afford insurance. The subsidies are quite generous for people with incomes close to the federal poverty level, and gradually diminish, dwindling to zero for people who make more than four times the federal poverty level. In other words, if someone’s family has an income near the federal poverty level, they get a lot of money to help them buy insurance. If a family makes 350% of the federal poverty level, they get a smaller subsidy. And if they make 450% of the federal poverty level, they don’t get any subsidy at all.

(To read the rest of this post, please visit Forbes.)

 

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What’s the Best Day to Die?

Among people receiving hospice care, the last few days of life can be intense, with progression of pain or breathing problems or other symptoms of their terminal illnesses. For those who die on Sundays, that means they are less likely to see doctors or nurses in the last days of life:

JAMA Internal Medicine

JAMA Internal Medicine

 

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Who Provides More Unnecessary Care: Physicians or Nurse Practitioners? (The Answer Is Surprising)

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Imagine you have been struggling for eight days with a bad cough, with what feels like a lifetime’s worth of secretions in your upper airways. When you called your primary care physician’s office, she wasn’t available, so you got an appointment with a nurse practitioner, who prescribed a course of antibiotics. Would you fill the prescription? Would you be confident the nurse practitioner was well trained enough to make that judgement? More generally, do non-physician primary care clinicians–like NPs or PAs–risk our health by ordering unnecessary tests and services?

Many Americans have a hard time getting timely access to primary care physicians. In response, some experts say we should expand the role of nurse practitioners and physician assistants in providing primary care. But many people are concerned that such clinicians will offer lower quality of care than their physician counterparts. They worry, for example, that nurse practitioners will refer many people to subspecialists who could have been taken care of by primary care physicians. They’re concerned that physician assistants will order unnecessary tests when patients present with signs or symptoms they don’t feel comfortable addressing.

It is probably time to put these concerns aside. When it comes to reducing unnecessary healthcare services, primary care physicians are no better than their less-lengthily-trained primary care colleagues.

(To read the rest of this article, please visit Forbes.)

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Do Luxury Brands Benefit from Income Inequality?

I like to think that despite being wealthier than most Americans, I remain immune to materialistic desires. I drive a 17-year-old Honda Accord and wouldn’t know designer clothes if you wrapped me in them, head to toe. But it turns out that I’m wrong. I’m not above materialism despite my wealth and social status. I’m immune because of it. Since I don’t need to signal my social value, I can save my money for other purposes.

In places with great income inequality, those people with lower incomes live under great social stress. Their low position in the social hierarchy is more obvious and more consequential. In response, some poor people purchase the kinds of good that create the impression that they have social resources to spare, even when they are cash-strapped. And people living in low income neighborhoods – the ones who are relatively well-off compared to their neighbors – are nevertheless worried that they’ll be misperceived as resource poor. So they purchase expensive and conspicuous goods, to make sure their resources are visible to outsiders.

As an example of this behavior, researchers recently examined Google search trends across the U.S., and found that people in states with relatively high income inequality were more likely to search for luxury brands than those in other states. Looking for the latest from Ralph Lauren (who, I discovered, manufactures overly expensive clothes)? The frequency of such Google searches is higher in Mississippi than Iowa (relative to more generic Google searches, like for “weather” ), in Mississippi than Iowa, and in New York than Nebraska. Basically, people living amidst greater income inequality are more interested in luxury goods.

(To read the rest of this article, please visit Forbes.)

 

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Warning: Bicycle Helmets Could Be Hazardous for Your Health

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A bicycle helmet prevented me from experiencing a major head injury. But did it promote the very behavior that caused me to crash my bike?

It was autumn in Michigan, and I was riding my mountain bike along a lakeside pathway. I was heading towards a twisty boardwalk that led up to a bridge arching over a stream. Instead of slowing down, I accelerated through the twists and turns, enjoying the thrill of my maneuverings. Until…

Whisk! My wheels passed over a (predictable) patch of wet leaves, just as I was making a sharp turn. My body slammed violently into the boardwalk, the brunt of force absorbed by my left shoulder and the left side of my bike helmet. My body was scraped up, my neck was stiff for three weeks, my handlebars were ruined and my head…was fine. My helmet saved me from a potentially devastating head injury. Hurrah for bike helmets.

But would I have ridden so carelessly if I hadn’t been wearing a helmet?

Helmets change behavior. When we feel impervious to injury, we act in ways that increase our chance of bodily harm. Indeed, helmets can have powerful, unconscious effects on our behavior.

(To read the rest of this article, please visit Forbes.)

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Goodbye Crop Diversity

Here’s a picture from National Geographic showing a stunning decline in the genetic diversity of crops:

Photo Credit: National Geographic

Photo Credit: National Geographic

This is dangerous – diversity is key to avoiding crop failures from disease and pestilence.

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Rural Voters Elected President Trump. Is He about to Ruin Their Local Hospitals?

It’s not an easy time to be a small, rural hospital. Insurance companies aren’t willing to pay generously for your services, given your measly market share. You are increasingly forced to compete against large integrated healthcare systems – conglomerations of urban, suburban and rural providers armed with big marketing budgets and specialized (generously reimbursed!) services. But at least for the past few years, you’ve been able to count on a boon in the number of people who are able and willing to pay for your services, thanks to healthcare insurance they received through Obamacare.

That could all change soon. Republicans hope to reduce federal spending on healthcare. They want to roll back the Obamacare insurance exchanges, through which many people receive subsidies to pay for their coverage. They want to trim Medicaid spending, meaning that millions of people will no longer have the financial means to pay for medical care.

Obamacare was good business for many hospitals and medical providers. Under Obamacare, many states expanded Medicaid to larger numbers of people, and those people went on to seek out medical care. For example, in Oregon when people were randomly selected to be eligible for Medicaid expansion, those who received coverage became more likely to receive medical care – from primary care appointments to emergency department visits.

To read the rest of this post, please visit Forbes.

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How Well Do Americans Meet Dietary Requirements?

A JAMA study shows that even though Americans are eating more nuts and whole grains than they used to (see previous post), they aren’t coming CLOSE to meeting dietary requirements:

Photo Credit: JAMA

Photo Credit: JAMA

Changing what people eat takes a long time!

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Death By Salad: Two Reasons ‘Healthy’ Food Could Make You Fat

In an effort to lose weight, you pass on the steak sizzler at your favorite family restaurant and settle, instead, for a healthy salad. But you might be in for a dieting double whammy. First off, the salad probably has more calories than you realize. For example, Applebee’s Grilled Chicken Caesar Salad packs a whopping 800 calories (a full 170 calories more than a Whopper). When you order that salad thinking you’re cutting calories, you’re wrong.

As if underestimating calories wasn’t bad enough, there’s a second problem with that salad–your body is about to play a sinister trick on you. As you engorge on all 800 calories of the salad, your brain, convinced the salad is healthy, convinces your stomach that it is not full. When people believe food is healthy, they experience that food as being less filling .

Not convinced? Consider this: A team of researchers gave college students a cookie to eat, telling half of them the cookie was “healthy” with “high levels of proteins, fibers and vitamins” and telling the other half it was “unhealthy” with “high levels of sugars, fats and carbohydrates.” Immediately after eating the cookie, and 45 minutes later, the researchers asked people how hungry they were. They found out that people who ate what they thought was a “healthy cookie” were hungrier.

(To read the rest of this post, please visit Forbes.)

 

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Costs, Schmosts!

modernmedicinenetworkTalk to your doctor about your out-of-pocket expenses. Ask about the cost of your meds. And await for the sound of silence! Sadly, that is too often what happens in medical clinics today. Here is a nice essay, exploring the topic, from a healthcare reporter.

With access to information about the costs of care, patients can make better choices about treatment paths that are aligned with their financial goals. Absent that information—or conversations with their physicians about costs—it’s virtually impossible for patients to incorporate this information into their decision-making.

Herein lies the problem: When physicians don’t talk to their patients about the cost of the care they receive, patients who are blindsided by medical bills may stop showing up for appointments, stop taking medications, and/or decide against pursuing their recommended treatment plans, which reduces the cost of care in the short term but can result in higher costs—for payers, providers, and patients—in the long term.

“We as physicians are trained to try to help patients weigh pros and cons [associated with treatment paths], but we don’t do that well when it comes to costs,” says Peter Ubel, MD, professor of business administration and medicine at Duke University. “Take an ultrasound, for example. A lot of [physicians] think, ‘What’s the downside? It’s a non-invasive test. I’ll just [order an ultrasound] and check the results.’”

What physicians often forget is that the cost of that ultrasound—which could be as much as $500—can “invade our patients’ wallets,” he says.

To read the rest of this article, please visit the Modern Medicine Network.

 

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